Abbreviation for Confined Animal Feeding Operation, which is an agricultural business where
animals are raised in confined situations and fed an unnatural diet, instead of
allowing them to roam and graze. This is an operation that is considered more
hazardous than an AFO for one or more reasons, such as the number of animals or
the location of the facility, its proximity to surface water and potential to
discharge waste into that water. The EPA determines whether an agricultural
business is a CAFO based on regulations created by the Clean Water Act, and special permits have
to be given for the owners to operate a CAFO legally. Enforcement of these
regulations has not been very strict, which has caused many problems.

More Info:

CAFO Final Rulemaking– Fact Sheet

The Issues with CAFO

More info on CAFO