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A large-scale industrial site where many animals (generally chickens, turkeys,
cattle, or pigs) are confined and treated with hormones and antibiotics to
maximize growth and prevent disease. The animals produce much more waste than the
surrounding land can handle. These operations are associated with various
environmental hazards as well as cruelty to animals.
The government calls these facilities Concentrated (or Confined) Animal Feeding
Operations (CAFOs). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines a CAFO as
“new and existing operations which stable or confine and feed or maintain
for a total of 45 days or more in any 12-month period more than the number of
animals specified” in categories that they list out. In addition,
“there’s no grass or other vegetation in the confinement area during the normal
growing season.”

Also see: CAFO & AFO

More info:

Legal Issues with Animal Agriculture

Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations Final Ruling — Fact Sheet




Industrial-style ships used for the
large-scale collection and processing of fish.

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Factory Shipping

An Example of Factory Shippig & it’s Consequences

The total animal population that inhabits an area.

Land owned and administered by the federal government, including national parks and national

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National Parks

An established area where fish species are
cultivated and caught.

Sudden death of a significant number of fish or other aquatic life such as crabs or shrimp
within one area. A fishkill can be caused by many different changes in the
environment, including pollution, temperature change and change in acidity.

The total vegetation assemblage that inhabits an area.

Treating combustion exhaust gases with chemical agents to remove pollutants. Spraying crushed limestone and water into the exhaust gas stream to remove sulfur is a common scrubbing technique.

(hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride), which are used as refrigerants and
aerosol propellants and in foam production, comprise only 2 percent of global
warming emissions but trap heat far more effectively than CO2, and
some last much longer.

See Also: Hydrofluorocarbons

A linked feeding series; in an ecosystem, the sequence of organisms through which energy and materials are transferred, in the form of food, from one trophic level to another.

Materials, formed from decayed plants and animals, that can be burned to
produce energy, include coal, petroleum, and natural gas.

More Info:

What is Fossil Fuels in Detail

See Hydraulic Fracking

New York City’s only operating landfill, located in Staten
Island. Infamous as the largest landfill in the world.

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Fresh Kills

Water other than seawater; covers only about 2 percent of earth’s surface, including streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, and water associated with several kinds of wetlands.

A chemical that kills fungi.